For this case study I am going to be focusing on the band which revolutionised music in the early '60s. Of course, I am talking about The Beatles.
1960 January : Despite having no musical ability, Stuart Sutcliffe is recruited to play bass by fellow art student John Lennon in his group The Quarrymen, which includes Paul McCartney and George Harrison.
March-April : The Quarrymen change their name to The Beatles.
May : In a flurry of activity the group recruit drummer Tommy Moore and part-time manager, Allan Williams, which helps them secure a one-off gig as backing group to crooner Johnny Gentle.
The band change their name to the Silver Beatles.
June-July : The band play a string of gigs around Liverpool and make a further small but significant typographical change to become The Silver Beatles.
August : Pete Best becomes the band's full-time drummer. The band travel to Hamburg in Germany to take up a 48-night residency at Bruno Koschmider's Indra club.
They drop the Silver from their name to become The Beatles.
September-November : In Hamburg, the naive young band are quickly immersed in a whirlwind of drink and drugs, sometimes playing for six hours per night, often as a warm-up act to strippers. Despite the gruelling conditions, they quickly sharpen up their act to become a tight and powerful rock 'n' roll outfit with a large repertoire of songs.
December : The stay in Hamburg comes to an abrupt end when 17-year old Harrison is deported for being underage. The band return to the UK minus Stuart Sutcliffe, who opts to remain in Germany with his new girlfriend, artist Astrid Kirchherr.
1961 January-March : The band play a total of 89 shows in three months around Liverpool, including a debut appearance at the Cavern Club. Neil Aspinall is recruited as roadie.
April : The band return to Hamburg for a 92-show stint at the Top Ten club.
June : The Beatles are recruited as backing band to singer Tony Sheridan and record a number of tracks in a Hamburg studio.
July-September : Back in Liverpool, the band average 30 performances a month in the city.
November : Local department store owner and impresario Brian Epstein goes to watch the boys play a lunchtime gig at the Cavern.
December : Epstein becomes The Beatles manager and arranges an audition with Decca records in London.
1962 January : On New Year's Day, the band travel to London to record 15 songs for Decca, but the session is lacklustre and they fail to make an impression.
February : Decca rejects the group, prompting a furious Epstein to proclaim: "You must be out of your minds! These boys are going to explode. I am completely confident that one day they will be bigger than Elvis Presley!" Later in the month he arranges a meeting with Parlophone Records producer George Martin.
April : Stuart Sutcliffe dies in Hamburg of a suspected brain haemorrhage. The band returns to the city for a 48-night run at the Star Club.
May-June : Brian Epstein secures a recording contract with Parlophone. The band returns to London and cuts four demo tracks: Besame Mucho, Ask Me Why, Love Me Do and P.S. I Love You.
August : Pete Best is sacked. Ringo Starr from Rory Storm and the Hurricanes - a band The Beatles had been brothers-in-arms with in Hamburg days - joins and the fab four are complete.
Later in the month John Lennon marries his girlfriend Cynthia Powell.
September : The band record their first single Love Me Do with George Martin.
October - November : Love Me Do peaks at a disappointing Number 17 in the singles chart.
December : The band return to Hamburg for a final 13 nights at the Star Club.
1963 January : Band release their second single - Please Please Me - and make national TV debut on ITV's Thank Your Lucky Stars.
February : Band return to the studio to record their first album - Please Please Me.
March : Single Please Please Me completes a slow climb up the charts to reach Number One.
April : /
May : Band tour with Roy Orbison. Third single From Me To You tops the charts for seven weeks, prompting the BBC to give them their own show Pop Goes The Beatles.
June : /
August : Band play their final gig at the Cavern.
September : Single She Loves You tops the charts for four weeks. The following month an appearance on Sunday Night At The London Palladium sees the band besieged by hundreds of adoring fans.
November : 'Beatlemania' is now in full swing. At a Royal Command Performance at London's Prince of Wales theatre John Lennon cheekily suggests that the more well-heeled members of the audience "rattle their jewellery."
She Loves You goes back to number one for another two weeks.
December : I Want To Hold Your Hand tops the charts for five weeks. The band play a string of Christmas shows at the Finsbury Park Astoria in London and appear on Juke Box Jury.
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1964 February : Band make their first visit to America to be greeted - to their surprise - by hysterical crowds. A performance on the Ed Sullivan show is watched by a record audience of 73 million. The band make their debut at New York's prestigious Carnegie Hall.
March : Back in the UK, the band begin filming their first movie, A Hard Day's Night and recording songs for the accompanying album. John Lennon's first book In His Own Write is published.
April : Can't Buy Me Love tops the UK and US charts. At one point, The Beatles occupy the top 5 places in the US chart, as well as 11 other positions in the Top 100.
May : /
July-August : Premiere of A Hard Days Night. Title single tops the charts for three weeks. The band return to play their first American tour, including at date at Los Angeles' Hollywood Bowl.
October-November : Beatles go on tour in the UK.
December : I Feel Fine tops the charts for five weeks. Band stages a run of Christmas shows at the Hammersmith Odeon.
1965 January: /
February : Beatles begin recording new album Help! and filming their second movie of the same title in the Bahamas. Ringo marries Maureen Cox.
April : Ticket To Ride tops the charts for three weeks.
May : Band make their final performance for BBC radio.
June : The Queen awards the band MBEs - to the disgust of some other recipients of the honour, who send back their medals in protest. Lennon's second book A Spaniard In The Works is published.
August : The Beatles play New York's Shea stadium to an estimated audience of 55,000 before travelling to the west coast to meet Elvis Presley in LA. The film Help! premieres in London.
October : Band begin work with George Martin on sixth album Rubber Soul.
December : Final UK tour. We Can Work It Out/Daytripper double A-side single goes to number one for five weeks. Rubber Soul released.
1966 January : George Harrison marries Pattie Boyd.
March : In an interview for the London Evening Standard, John Lennon expresses the opinion that The Beatles are now more popular than Jesus.
April : Band spend most of the month in the studio recording new album Revolver.
May : Final UK concert - the NME poll winners concert at Wembley Empire Pool (now the Arena). Band film promo films for new AA-side single Paperback Writer/Rain.
June-July : The Beatles continue work on Revolver album. Paperback Writer single tops the charts for two weeks. Band then goes on tour in West Germany, Japan and Philippines, where they trigger a riot and are forced to flee after offending President Marcos' wife Imelda. Lennon's 'Jesus' interview re-printed in the US.
August : Christian groups stage protests - including record burnings in parts of the US - against The Beatles following Lennon's 'blasphemous' comments. A final US tour, overshadowed by the controversy ends at San Francisco's Candlestick Park. The jaded and disillusioned group quit live performances for good.
September : Lennon given the part of Private Gripweed in the surreal anti-war film How I Won The War. George Harrison travels to India to study with sitarist Ravi Shankar. Ringo and Paul go on holiday.
November : John Lennon meets Japanese artist Yoko Ono at her Unfinished Paintings and Objects exhibition in London. Band begin recording Strawberry Fields Forever.
December : Band enter the studio with George Martin to begin work on Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
1967 January : During a break in recording Sgt Pepper, John and Paul go to the London Roundhouse to watch The Who and Jimi Hendrix.
March : Engelbert Humperdinck's Release Me keeps Strawberry Fields Forever/Penny Lane off the UK Number One spot.
April-May : Frenzy of recording continues as the band begins work on follow-up to Sgt Pepper (Magical Mystery Tour) immediately after completing the album.
June : Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band released. Band record All You Need Is Love and appear on the BBC's One World global simulcast programme, watched by an audience of an estimated 400 million).
July : The Beatles go on holiday together in the Aegean. All You Need Is Love goes to number one for three weeks.
August : George Harrison visits the hippie enclave of Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco - world headquarters of the 'Flower Power' movement. Band travel to Bangor in Wales to study with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
September-October : Filming and recording for Magical Mystery Tour continues around the UK and France.
December : Single Hello Goodbye tops the chart for seven weeks. Magical Mystery Tour film is screened by BBC2 on Boxing Day to a lukewarm critical reception. Beatles open the Apple Boutique on Baker Street in London.
1968 January : George records his experimental soundtrack album Wonderwall in India.
February : Band record Lady Madonna, Across The Universe and Hey Bulldog before travelling to Rishikesh in India to resume meditation with the Maharishi.
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March-April : Band straggle back from India after growing disillusioned with the Maharishi.
May : The band form their Apple Corps. company. John convenes a meeting to inform the rest of the band that he is Jesus. The Beatles begin working on The Beatles album (aka the White Album). Lennon and Yoko Ono become a couple.
July : Animated film Yellow Submarine opens in London. Band record Hey Jude while continuing work on their new album. Apple Boutique closes at the end of the month.
August : Cynthia Lennon files for divorce as John's relationship with Yoko Ono continues.
September : Hey Jude goes to number one for nine weeks in America, becoming one of the biggest selling singles there of all time.
October : John and Yoko raided by the drugs squad at Ringo's flat in London. They are later fined £150 for possessing cannabis.
November : The Beatles double album is released.
Release of John and Yoko's Two Virgins album is marked by controversy caused by the record's front cover shot of the couple posing naked.
December : John and Yoko perform in The Rolling Stones Rock n' Roll Circus.
1969 January : Band convene at Twickenham studios to begin filming rehearsals for a loosely conceived concert-album, but after a major row with John, George temporarily walks out.
The Beatles return to Apple to continue recording the album part of the project - Let It Be. Sessions remain fractious, and peter out at the end of the month.
(skip a few seconds for the song)
February : Without a manager since the death of Brian Epstein, John, George and Ringo ask US businessman Allen Klein to look after the band's chaotic affairs. Paul objects to this, and appoints Eastman and Eastman as 'general advisors'.
March-April : Paul marries Linda Eastman. John and Yoko get married in Gibraltar and hold a 'bed-in' at the Amsterdam Hilton. Single Get Back tops the UK chart for seven weeks. John and Paul record The Ballad of John And Yoko.
May : Band return to the studio to begin work on Abbey Road. Refused entry to the US after their drug convictions, John and Yoko hold a series of bed-ins in Canada.
June-July : John records Give Peace A Chance in Montreal. Band continue work on Abbey Road.
August : /
September : The Plastic Ono Band make their debut appearance in Toronto. John begins work on a solo single, Cold Turkey.
The Beatles' final recorded album, Abbey Road, is released.
November-December : Ringo starts recording solo album Sentimental Journey. John and Yoko publish posters in 11 cities worldwide saying: "War Is Over - If You Want It. Happy Christmas From John and Yoko."
Paul McCartney starts work on McCartney album at home in Scotland.
1970 January : Recording resumes on aborted Let It Be album - not all band members present.
February : John and Yoko become involved with Michael X's Black House project and join campaigns against apartheid and for nuclear disarmament.
March : Single Let It Be stalls at number two in the UK charts. Phil Spector remixes the Let It Be album - to the later disgust of Paul McCartney.
April : The Beatles announce their break-up. Paul McCartney releases his first solo album.
I couldn't find much information on the director I wanted to look at, as he seems pretty exclusive, so I've decided to look at Sophie Muller instead..
Background info : Sophie Muller was born in London, United Kingdom, but spent her early years growing up on the Isle Of Man. After leaving secondary education, she returned to London to attend Central St Martin's, gaining a Foundation Diploma in Art. Following her graduation, Muller went to the Royal College of Art to study for her Masters in Film and Television, where she made "Interlude" and "In Excelsis Deo (In Adoration of God)." The latter won the J Walter Thompson Prize for creativity.
Career info : Muller's first taste of professional film came working as a third assistant on the horror/thriller "Company of Wolves." Sophie then went on to work for International Film and Video, honoring her for her editing, producing, and directing skills. Sophia's real goal was to become a successful director in her own right, and her big break came through a chance meeting with John Stewart and Billy Poveda of Oil Factory, an established film production company. She has directed over a hundred music videos and has been a longtime collaborator with acts like Sophie Ellis-Bextor, No Doubt, Garbage, Blur, Annie Lennox and Eurythmics. Her work with Annie Lennox won her a Grammy for the Diva video album. She also picked up an MTV Video Music Award for "Why" and was also Grammy nominated for the Eurythmics' Savage video album. Muller has directed seven No Doubt videos and six solo videos for Gwen Stefani & seven Sophie Ellis Bextor videos including Murder on the Dancefloor, Catch You and Music Gets the Best of Me Both versions. When No Doubt's "Don't Speak" won the award for Best Group Video at the 1997 MTV Video Music Awards Stefani thanked her extensively, saying, "I'd like to say that Sophie Muller is a genius." Stefani has also stated, "Sophie Muller is one of my most talented friends. She can and will only do projects that she is inspired by. She is driven by creativity and the love for what she does and as a result she never compromises. I consider her a true artist. I was a fan of Sophie's work before I even imagined working with her. She has a very pronounced style and taste that drew me in. I think she has the gift of being able to bring out the artist's personality, emotion and style. After working with her for the first time on our "Don't Speak" video, we became close friends. On the set her direction is humble and simple, but she knows what she wants and knows when she gets it. A woman in charge in the male-dominated world of filmmaking makes the whole experience that much more exciting. She has a way of making every cut have a reason and meaning. The videos have a life of their own and become better each time you watch them. I am always in shock the first time I see them and then after a few more times I am actually amazed. She has taught me a lot and I feel very lucky to have worked with her." Muller states that her only ambition is to continue directing to her own high standards and to never grow bored. In 2004, she directed the socially aware video for Sarah McLachlan's "World on Fire", where all but $15 of the entire $150,000 video budget was donated to charities. Recently, she has directed videos for Sophie Ellis-Bextor, Shakira, Mika and the critically acclaimed comeback video for the Dixie Chicks, "Not Ready to Make Nice".
Videography : 1983 Eurythmics - "The Walk" (editing)
1987 Eurythmics - "Beethoven (I Love to Listen to)"
1988 Eurythmics - "Brand New Day" Eurythmics - "Do You Want to Break Up?" Eurythmics - "Heaven" Eurythmics - "I Need You" Eurythmics - "Put the Blame on Me" Eurythmics - "Savage" Eurythmics - "Wide Eyed Girl" Sade - "Nothing Can Come Between Us" Sade - "Turn My Back on You" Eurythmics - "I Need a Man" Sade - "Love Is Stronger Than Pride" Eurythmics - "You Have Placed a Chill in My Heart" Shakespears Sister - "Break My Heart" Shakespear's Sister - "Heroine" Annie Lennox featuring Al Green - "Put a Little Love in Your Heart"
1989 Shakespears Sister - "You're History" Shakespears Sister - "Run Silent" Sarah Brightman - "Anything but Lonely" Eurythmics - "Don't Ask Me Why" Eurythmics - "Angel"
1990 Eurythmics - "The King and Queen of America" Julia Fordham - "Lock and Key" Sinéad O'Connor - "The Emperor's New Clothes"
1991 Nanci Griffith - "Late Night Grande Hotel" World Party - "Thank You World" Curve - "Coast Is Clear" Shakespears Sister - "Goodbye Cruel World"
1992 Curve - "Fait Accompli" Shakespears Sister - "Stay" Aaron Neville - "Somewhere, Someday" Annie Lennox - "Why" Shakespears Sister - "Hello (Turn Your Radio On)" Annie Lennox - "Precious" Vegas - "possessed" Annie Lennox - "Cold" Annie Lennox - "Money Can't Buy It" Annie Lennox - "Legend in My Living Roon" Annie Lennox - "The Gift" Annie Lennox - "Primitive" Annie Lennox - "Keep Young and Beautiful" Sade - "No Ordinary Love" Annie Lennox - "Walking on Broken Glass" Annie Lennox - "Love Song for a Vampire" Shakespears Sister - "I Don't Care" Annie Lennox - "Little Bird"
1993 Björk - "Venus as a Boy"
1994 Hole - "Miss World" The Jesus and Mary Chain Featuring Hope Sandoval - "Sometimes Always" The Jesus and Mary Chain - "Come On" Sparks - "When Do I Get to Sing My Way?"
1995 Sophie B. Hawkins - "As I Lay Me Down" Sparks - "When I Kiss You" Stone Roses - "Ten Storey Love Song" Lisa Loeb & Nine Stories - "Do You Sleep?" Jeff Buckley - "So Real" Weezer - "Say It Ain't So"
1996 The Cure - "The 13th" Kè - "Strange World" Gary Barlow - "Forever Love" Shakespears Sister - "I Can Drive" No Doubt - "Don't Speak" No Doubt - "Excuse Me Mr." No Doubt - "Sunday Morning" The Lightning Seeds - "What If..."
1997 Blur - "Beetlebum" Blur - "On Your Own" Blur - "Song 2" Maxwell - "Whenever, Wherever, Whatever" Curve - "Chinese Burn" No Doubt - "Hey You" No Doubt - "Oi to the World"
1998 James Iha - "Be Strong Now" Maxwell - "Luxury: Cococure" Sparklehorse - "Sick Of Goodbyes" Garbage - "When I Grow Up" (live version) Garbage - "The Trick Is to Keep Breathing" Rufus Wainwright - "April Fools"
1999 Blur - "Tender" Sinéad O'Connor - "Chiquita" Natalie Merchant Featuring N'dea Davenport - "Break Your Heart" Sparklehorse - "Pig" Manic Street Preachers - "You Stole the Sun from My Heart" Garbage - "When I Grow Up" (U.S. version) Semisonic - "Secret Smile" The Cardigans - "Hanging Around" Sarah McLachlan - "Possession" (American version) Sarah McLachlan - "I Will Remember You" Emiliana Torrini - "To Be Free" Beth Orton - "Central Reservation" Sarah McLachlan - "Ice Cream" Supergrass - "Mary"
2000 Eurythmics - "I Saved the World Today" No Doubt - "Simple Kind of Life" Ute Lemper - "The Case Continues" Doves - "Catch The Sun" Bentley Rhythm Ace - "How'd I Do Dat?" Alisha's Attic - "Push It All Aside" Alisha's Attic - "Pretender Got My Heart" JJ72 - "Oxygen" PJ Harvey - "Good Fortune" Sade - "By Your Side" Coldplay - "Trouble" Jamelia – "Boy Next Door"
2001 Turin Brakes - "The Door" Sade - "King of Sorrow" Turin Brakes - "Underdog (Save Me)" No Doubt - "Bathwater" PJ Harvey - "A Place Called Home" Nelly Furtado - "Turn off the Light" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Take Me Home" PJ Harvey - "This Is Love" Radiohead - "I Might Be Wrong" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Murder on the Dancefloor"
2002 Amy Studt - "Just a Little Girl" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Move This Mountain" Sugababes - "Freak Like Me" Coldplay - "In My Place" Amy Studt - "Misfit" The Beu Sisters - "I Was Only 17" Sparta - "Cut Your Ribbon" Pink - "Family Portrait" No Doubt (featuring Lady Saw) - "Underneath It All" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Music Gets the Best of Me" (both versions)
2003 Nickel Creek - "Speak" Dolly Parton - "I'm Gone" Dido - "Life for Rent" Pink - "Trouble" The Raveonettes - "That Great Love Sound" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "I Won't Change You" [co-produced]
2004 Dixie Chicks - "Top of the World" The Killers - "Mr. Brightside" Sixpence None the Richer - "Don't Dream It's Over" Maroon 5 - "This Love" Maroon 5 - "She Will Be Loved" Nelly Furtado - "Try" Mindy Smith - "Come to Jesus" Sarah McLachlan - "World on Fire" Sarah McLachlan - "Stupid" The Strokes - "The End Has No End" Natasha Bedingfield - "These Words" (UK version) Vanessa Carlton - "White Houses" Loretta Lynn Featuring Jack White - "Portland, Oregon"
2005 KT Tunstall - "Black Horse and the Cherry Tree" Garbage - "Why Do You Love Me" Garbage - "Bleed Like Me" Garbage - "Sex Is Not the Enemy" Garbage - "Run Baby Run" Gwen Stefani - "Cool" Coldplay - "Fix You" Faith Hill Featuring Tim McGraw - "Like We Never Loved at All" Gwen Stefani - "Luxurious" Gwen Stefani - "Serious" Gwen Stefani - "The Real Thing" Gwen Stefani - "Crash"
2006 Shakira featuring Wyclef Jean - "Hips Don't Lie" Dixie Chicks - "Not Ready to Make Nice" She Wants Revenge - "These Things" Faith Hill - "Stealing Kisses" Lily Allen - "Smile" Beyoncé featuring Jay-Z- "Deja Vu" Beyoncé - "Ring the Alarm" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Catch You" The Raconteurs - "Level" Gwen Stefani - "Wind It Up"
2007 Siobhán Donaghy- "Don't Give It Up" Mika - "Grace Kelly" Gwen Stefani - "4 in the Morning" Mika - "Love Today" Rufus Wainwright - "Going to a Town" Garbage - "Tell Me Where It Hurts" Sophie Ellis-Bextor - "Today the Sun's on Us" Maroon 5 - "Won't Go Home Without You" Gwen Stefani - "Early Winter"
2008 The Kills - "U.R.A. Fever" The Kills - "Cheap and Cheerful" Leona Lewis - "Better in Time" Leona Lewis - "Footprints in the Sand" The Ting Tings - "That's Not My Name" Gavin Rossdale - "Love Remains The Same" Kings of Leon - "Sex on Fire" Cold War Kids - "Something is Not Right With Me" Duffy - "Stepping Stone" Sarah McLachlan - "U Want Me 2" Duffy - "Rain On Your Parade" Kings of Leon - "Use Somebody"
The director I am going to be focusing on for this case study is Nick Frew. Nick Frew's films are vibrant, unpredictable and worthy of many a re-watching. His work is always packed with ideas and unforced moments of comic genius. To quote PROMO magazine, Nick's work "boasts the kind of confident swagger that turns paupers into kings." Nick comes from a graphics and music commercials background but has since applied his skills to live action producing virals and promos that always rack up high hit counts. Frew has created music video's for a variety of artists, ranging from Just Jack, Lily Allen, The V.Cs, Fatboy Slim, Dan Le Sac, Mark Ronson, Ida Maria, Mint Royale and The Dykeenies.
I've concluded that my favorite video of all time is Sounds Of The City by The Dykeenies. I really like this video because the band used digitalism to create the video, whereby the create a moving sequence using photographs. For my AS media project, we used the same thing. I also just like the simpleness of this video - it reflects the simple meaning behind the lyrics.